Sunday, April 1, 2012
Strengths and Weaknesses of 8 Perspectives of Personality Psych
List and define the eight perspectives of personality psychology that are discussed in this section. What is the usefulness of studying eight perspectives of personality psychology? The eight perspectives of personality psychology discussed in this chapter are psychoanalytic, neo-analytic, biological, behaviorist, cognitive, trait, humanistic and interactionist. All of these approaches examine aspects of human personality from different angles. Thus, by utilizing multiple aspects of studying personality the researcher is likely to get the best assessment. Psychoanalytic- This form of psychology devotes attention to a person’s conscious and unconscious thoughts. Sigmund Freud developed this approach and placed emphasis on a person’s id, ego and superego. Neo-Analytic- This aspect of psychology developed out of Alfred Alder’s work. He postulated that people develop inferiority complexes, which affect their personality and development. Consequently, there is an ”emphasis on the self as it struggles to cope with emotions and drives on the inside and the demands of others on the outside” (Friedman, Schustack, 2006, p. 8). Biological- This approach is usually attributed to Charles Darwin; however, many other scientists paved the way for this approach to psychology as well. It emphasizes the biological components such as inheritance that affect human personality. This aspect of psychology is commonly linked with other approaches to psychology. Behaviorist- B. F. Skinner developed this aspect of psychology. It examines the learning experiences that develop a person’s personality. Cognitive- Cognitive psychology focuses “on people’s consistencies in perceiving and interpreting the world around them” (p. 8). Trait- This helps individual’s assess their own personality traits by using 5 basic points. This approach was established by Gordon Allport. Humanistic- This aspect of psychology appreciates the nature of human thought and utilizes modern knowledge from cognitive psychology (p. 8). Carl Rodgers was a catapulting figuring in the development of this form of psychology. Interactionist- This form of psychology evaluates how a person acts differently in different situations and around different people. What are the strengths and weaknesses of an objective approach to personality assessment? A subjective approach? How do these two approaches relate to the concepts of reliability and validity? This short essay will assess the various strengthens and weaknesses of an objective approach to personality assessment and subjective approach. Then more narrowly it will illuminate how these two approaches relate to the concepts of reliability and validity. In order to best elucidate the strengths and weakness of these to approaches it is important to establish a clear definition of both forms of assessment. Friedman and Schustack (2006) state that objective assessments are made when a test’s “measurement is not dependent on a judgment by the individual making the assessment”. Conversely, subjective assessments are measurements that rely on interpretation. Both of these methods have strengths and weaknesses. For example, objective assessments produce results that are quantified and defined. This makes it easy to process the results of an experiment; however, these studies often miss the subtle aspects of personality (p. 65). While subjective assessments utilize the assessments of others to make measurements. This allows researchers to see different aspects of people’s personality that were not illuminated in objective tests; however, it can lead to disagreements within the results between observers and test-givers. Both objective and subjective assessments should be reliable and valid. But subjective and objective tests tend to favor being more reliable or more valid based on the nature of the assessment. For example, subjective tests can be less reliable because the results are based on a subjective perspective. Consequently, another observer/test giver could produce scores that were less consistent than the previous observers’ scores. However, subjective tests can be more valid than objective tests because the third person is able to actually look for a specific aspect that objective tests can miss. Such as, how many times a person smiles during the study. Take one element of the theories or ideas presented this week and apply it to a real life situation using a television, media, or popular figure in the world. Apply the information to one aspect of the character’s life and discuss how the character can be seen using the information presented in your text or in outside materials. A person’s expressive behavior allows them to be accepted and attracts attention. For instance, Adam Sandler’s ability to impersonate others, sing, dance and create jokes allows him to be successful at his career as a comic actor. He is able to calmly utilize expressive body gestures to make the audience laugh. His is from the New England area and his accent is demonstrates that; however, he is easily able to mimic others dialectics in order to get the attention of others. If Adam Sandler were given a Type A structured interview his non-verbal cues would be as telling as his verbal cues. He speaks loudly and utilizes his entire body to illustrate a story. He would easily be characterized as a charismatic person.